Elements of Communication

Elements of Communication

Communication is one of the most important factors for the existence of our society today. The importance of effective communication is immeasurable in the world of business and in personal life. Denis McQuail is one of the most influential scholars in the field of mass communication studies says “ Communication is the sending of meaningful messages from one person to another”. According to Harold D Lasswell “ Communication is discerning who says what, in which channel to whom and with what effect”. In simple words Communication is giving, receiving or exchanging ideas, information, signals or messages through an appropriate media. It is a dynamic process involving a series of actions and reactions with a view to achieve a goal. The importance of effective communication is immeasurable in the world of business and in personal life. Communication is, therefore, a two way process. Each element plays an important role in making the communication effective and can be classified as follows:

1.Sender:  Sender is an individual, group, or organization who initiates the communication. This source is initially responsible for the success of the message. A process by which the sender formulates an idea to communicate is selected first. The first step the sender is faced with involves the encoding process. In order to convey meaning, the sender must begin encoding, which means translating information into a message in the form of symbols signs that represent ideas or concepts, which is then communicated. This process can be influenced by external factors, or it can come about internally by thinking about a particular subject. For Ex:

Ex. A politician giving a speech.

A parent lecturing a child.

Customer of a restaurant writing a complaint letter to the management of the restaurant.

2. Message:  A message can be an idea, concept, emotion, feeling that a person wants to share with another person. A message can be verbal or non-verbal form of communication. It is based on the source or idea, but the message is crafted to meet the needs of the receiver. The purpose to send a message is to evoke meaning to the other person. A message can be intentional or non-intentional. Messages can be encoded into a variety of formats oral, written or visual.

Eg: Speech is a channel,  signs, gestures,symbols are different ways in which a message can be transmitted.

3. Channel:  It’s the medium through which communication is transmitted from one person to the reliever.  Most channels are either oral or written. Common channels include the telephone and a variety of written forms such as memos, letters, and reports. The effectiveness of the various channels fluctuates depending on the characteristics of the communication. In case of immediate feedback Oral Communication is convenient. In a situation where the message must be delivered to more than a small group of people, written channels are often more effective. Although in many cases, both oral and written channels should be used because one supplements the other. For Eg: A president delivering a Speech may speak face to face with an audience, via the broadcast media or via print.

For Ex : An audience receives the politician’s speech.

The child who is the recipient of the parents lecture

4. Receiver: Receiver is the individual or individuals to whom the message is directed to. The extent to which a receiver comprehends the message will depend on a number of factors, which include the following: knowledge of the individual regarding the message, their receptivity to the message. All interpretations by the receiver are influenced by their experiences, attitudes, knowledge, skills, perceptions, and culture.

Ex. An audience receives the politician’s speech.

Student receiving a lecture from the teacher in a classroom.

5. Decoding: Decoding is the process where the message is interpreted by the receiver . The receiver begins to interpret the message through words, signs, symbols sent by the sender translating the message to its set of experiences in order to make the message meaningful. Successful communication takes place when the receiver correctly interprets the sender’s message.

Eg: A student searches the definition of a word unknown to her in the dictionary, interprets the meaning and gains information.

6. Feedback: Feedback  is an integral part of communication process that allows the speaker to monitor the process and to evaluate the success of the message communicated. This step conveys to the sender that the message is understood by the receiver. After receiving a message, the receiver responds through a channel and signals that response to the sender. For Ex: The signal may take the form of a spoken comment, a written message, a smile, rolling of eyes, a sigh or some other action. No response is also a form of feedback. Without feedback, the sender cannot confirm that the receiver has interpreted the message correctly. For Eg: Employee surveys, company news letters, e-mails.

7. Noise-  There are certain barriers present in the communication process. These factors may have an impact on the communication process. Noise is one of the most common barriers, that influence the feedback in this process. Noise essentially is anything that distorts a message by interfering with the communication process. Noise can take many forms it can be external or internal factors. Noise as a barrier may originate from the source or the receiver, from the channel used in sending the message, or outside the source and receiver’s control.

Eg: Internal factor Involves mental forces within a receiver or sender that might affect his or her ability to either encode or decode a message correctly. Eg: Daydreaming, fatigue, exhaustion.

Eg: External factors: Anything around the person that disturbs the communication process. Eg: Sights, sounds, smell.


Successful and effective communication for an individual, group or an organisation starts with the right implementation of the communication process. Effective communication leads to understanding. Through this process that the sharing of a common meaning between the sender and the receiver takes place.  Communication is important for us. For effective communication we need to understand  how various elements work.


Is CSR a human face of capitalism?

Corporate social responsibility (CSR), also known as corporate responsibility, corporate citizenship, responsible business, refers to Corporate initiative to assess and take responsibility for the company’s effects on the environment and impact on social welfare. Corporate social responsibility may also be referred to as “corporate citizenship” and can involve incurring short-term costs that do not provide an immediate financial benefit to the company, but instead promote positive social and environmental change.   It means were a company has taken the responisibilty to provide duty environment friendly goods and services, with a goal to develop lives around the companys establishments. Some of the socially conscious companies have taken an initiative to develop their company’s image and build better realtions with the society. Some of the examples of CSR practised by companies in India and abroad are



 Regarded as one of the most successful camaigns of CSR, and one of the first companies to publish full report on its efforts and initiatives. Founder Anita Roddick led her company to stand up for it’s beliefs and practised causes dedicated to environmental protection, animal rights, commnity trade and human rights. Presenting a petition against animal testing to the European Union with 4,000,000 signatures and sponsoring posters for greenpeace.

2.ITC Limited

It is one of India’s foremost private sector companies having a diverse portfolio of operations. The company has been taking several initiatives to be apprecited globally. The Company’s ‘e-Choupal’ initiative is enabling Indian agriculture significantly enhance its competitiveness by empowering Indian farmers through the power of the Internet.The company places computers with Internet access in rural farming villages; the e-Choupals serve as both a social gathering place for exchange of information (choupal means gathering place in Hindi) and an e-commerce hub. ITC Limited was presented the FICCI Award for Outstanding Achievement in Rural and Community Development by the Finance Minister, Pranab Mukherjee (2010).

3. Tata

Tata’s CSR activities in Jamshedpur include the provision of full health and education facilities for all employees and their family members.

4. Infosys

Infosys commits one per cent of its profits every year to social causes through the Infosys Foundation.

5. Wipro

Wipro Chairman Azim Premji has pledged to donate nearly Rs 10,000 crores for improving school education in the country.

6. Amul

Amul spurred India’s White Revolution, making the country the world’s largest producer of milk and milk products. Amul was instrumentak in creating a national milk distribution grid in the 1970’s, that turned India into the world’s largest producer of milk and dairy products.

The primary goal of a business may be making profits. Companies have realized that for a business to thrive and be successful trust should be built around people who not only work for them, but also to the people surrounding them. An adequate workforce, investment and opportunities should be created by a company. Only then a business can florish and corporate social responsibilty is one of the major factors to achieve these goals.

Assam Violence 2012

Assam violence

Over 44 people killed, several wounded and tens of thousands of people are left homeless. Police sources state that, the trouble began on the night of 20th july, four former Bodo Liberation Tigers where attacked by a mob in Kokrajhar district, dominated by Bodos in Assam. This led to an ethnic conflict, where Bodo community retaliated by attacking the Muslim settlers in the district.  Violence has also spread to the neighbouring Chirang district. Over 1,70,000 people belonging to both the affected communities, as well as others, in the four districts have taken shelter in over 150 relief camps. Trouble was brewing over the years, where Local communities state that the increasing Muslim population consists of refugees from the erstwhile East Pakistan prior to the 1971 Indo-Pakistan War, claiming that subsequent illegal immigrants from Bangladesh who have taken advantage of the porous border. Assam’s Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi is criticised of ineffective action and ignoring warnings from the centre.  He has accepted responsibility of failure of law and order, but has refused to resign. India’s central government deployed central para military forces and 13 columns of the Indian Army only on 24th  July, 2012. Union home ministry officials admitted there was delay in deployment of army in violence-hit areas . The CM, Tarun Gogoi  said that if the Army was present since Day 1 “unprecedented crisis” and loss of so many lives could be avoided.  The Army was deployed in the four districts of Kokrajhar, Chirang, Dhubri and Bongaigaon where they staged flag marches accompanied by a magistrate to the affected districts. The refugees fear that if they go back, violence may erupt again, inspite of the presence of the army. Thousands of passengers were relieved when Ttrain services, which came to a complete halt for two days, resumed with three special trains – one each to New Delhi, Kolkata and Bangalore.

 Currently, the focus is on relief, since the relief camps are overcrowded and are unable to cope with basic facilities. Mamta Banerjee, Chief minister of West Bengal, has pledged her support to the refugees who fled. Currently the army is keeping a constant vigil on the situation, which is still unstable.